The most difficult times can produce the greatest spiritual blessings. God truly knows just what we need at every moment!

Thursday, December 24, 2009

Merry Christmas

Jesus Christ is born to save us, to save you …

from the pain, from the temptation, from the sin and finally from the death …

Jesus Christ is born to be with us, to be with you …

every day, every time and especially when you are sad, disappointed and frightened …

In the beauty of the season,

In the joy of Christmas Day,

May you find a special meaning

that brings happiness your way.

May His presence and blessings be always with you, during this time of Christmas as well as during the whole New Year 2010…

On behalf of the St. Matthew Parish

Christmas 2010 Fr. Kazimierz Kubat SDS


Readings: Isaiah 52:7-10 Hebrews 1:1-6 John 1:1-18

In the beginning was the Word,

and the Word was with God,

and the Word was God.

He was in the beginning with God.

All things came to be through him,

and without him nothing came to be.

What came to be through him was life,

and this life was the light of the human race;

the light shines in the darkness,

and the darkness has not overcome it.

He came to what was his own,

but his own people did not accept him.

But to those who did accept him

he gave power to become children of God,

to those who believe in his name,

who were born not by natural generation

nor by human choice nor by a man’s decision

but of God.

And the Word became flesh

and made his dwelling among us,

and we saw his glory,

the glory as of the Father’s only Son,

full of grace and truth.

The Word

We use words as a way of communicating ourselves. And there are many different kinds of words: superficial, deep, constructive, destructive, factual, emotional, funny, sad, encouraging, discouraging, loving, abusive...

We use the words to glorify and praise, to support and distract, we use the word to express our feelings and our knowledge. But we use them also to curse and to blaspheme. We even use the words to lie and misguide.

God's Word is special. It is creative (as ours too can be). God's Word does not just communicate an idea. God’s WORD is active; it brings things into existence. Everything that exists flows from the creative Word of God. In a special way it brings into being; it gives life.

When our hands are full of mercy and goodness,

when our lips are full with compassionate smiles,

when our hearts are pure, uncomplicated

and receptive like the crib in Bethlehem,

when our lives are honest

and our bread shared with the poor

Then into our homes will enter

the Blessing of the Newborn Child

and we will meet Him in all our brothers

and we will feel God's presence among us

and see His glory in our lives.

Original essay by Dr James Allan Francis in “The Real Jesus and Other Sermons” © 1926 by the Judson Press of Philadelphia (pp 123-124 titled “Arise Sir Knight!”).

One Solitary Life

He was born in an obscure village, the child of a peasant woman.

He grew up in another village, where He worked in a carpenter shop until He was thirty. Then for three years He was an itinerant preacher.

He never wrote a book, He never held an office.

He never had a family or owned a home.

He didn’t go to college.

He never visited a big city.

He never traveled two hundred miles from the place He was born.

He did none of the things that usually accompany greatness. He has no credentials but Himself.

He was only thirty-three when the tide of public opinion turned against Him.

His friends ran away.

One of them denied Him.

He was turned over to His enemies and went through the mockery of a trial.

He was nailed to a cross between two thieves.

While He was dying, His executioners gambled for His garments, the only property He had on earth.

When He was dead, He was laid in a borrowed grave through the pity of a friend.

Twenty centuries have come and gone, and today He is the central figure of the Human race. All the armies that ever marched, all the navies that ever sailed, all the parliaments that ever sat, all the kings that ever reigned, put together, have not affected the life of man on this earth as much as that one solitary life.

This Christmas night when we are celebrating the birth of this extraordinary person I ask myself only one question:

Has His life affected also my life?

Otherwise what am I doing here?

Tuesday, December 22, 2009


Supreme Knight Carl Anderson Reflects on Pontiff

NEW HAVEN, Connecticut, DEC. 21, 2009 ( Pope John Paul II's holiness was apparent to anyone who met him, or even read his writings, says the supreme knight of the Knights of Columbus.

Carl Anderson, who met several times with the Pontiff, spoke with ZENIT of the Holy Father's cause for canonization, which advanced one step closer to beatification this weekend.

On Saturday, Benedict XVI approved a decree testifying to John Paul II's heroic virtue. To qualify for beatification, John Paul II, who died in 2005, needs a miracle attributed to his intercession.

ZENIT: Benedict XVI has approved the heroic virtues of Pope John Paul II, and there is talk that the former Pope could be beatified as early as next October. How exceptional is it for a figure to pass so quickly through the process of canonization?

Anderson: It is certainly exceptional for someone's cause to move this quickly, but it is not unprecedented in truly extraordinary cases. Mother Teresa's cause also moved forward very quickly. I think the key with both John Paul II and Mother Teresa was this: Both were known throughout and universally acclaimed for their holiness.

We should not forget the cries of "santo subito" that rang out at John Paul's canonization.

As for John Paul's beatification, I wouldn't want to speculate on the timing of his beatification. Such an event will only come after a process, a careful process, that takes time, but certainly things have been moving forward as quickly as is prudent.

ZENIT: You knew John Paul II personally. What most impressed you about the late Pontiff?

Anderson: Pope John Paul was unforgettable on many levels. It was unmistakable that he was a very holy man, that he loved Christ immensely and that he was Christ's vicar on earth -- a role he took very seriously.

If his holiness was unmistakable, so too was his human side. He had a great sense of humor, and a very bright mind. Anyone who has read John Paul's writing knows just how brilliant he was and just how important his faith was.

Meeting him, I found a man consistent with his writing. A man with a deep concern and compassion for humanity, for his fellow man, for the future. He was a man every bit as remarkable in person as he was in his thought and writing, and that was almost immediately apparent when spending time with him.

Dec. 12. 2009 - Fourth SUNDAY OF ADVENT

Blessed are you among women

The service of Mary at Elizabeth’s house is full of humility and sincerity; it is natural and human because Mary is human, humble and sincere. It is, maybe for this reason that we are surprised and embarrassed hearing about this, because our life became already too complicated and not sincere and not humble. God won’t from us any kind of a special and extraordinary actions and activities. He became a man in the simplicity and even austerity of a manger; He lived among us accepting all human conditions and limitations but sin, and He gave us the natural human feelings and emotions like sincerity, honesty, genuineness, openness, cordiality, helpfulness, kindness. And finally He expects that all this will be an experience of our daily life. He gave us even His own Mother to be our Mother with all her maternal tenderness.

This we can see in today’s Gospel when Mary is visiting Elizabeth to help her older aunt, because Mary understands, is compassionate and kind in all her acts. She comes to help, to be useful, to serve and to be careful, vigilant, and watchful. She will be the same during the wedding in Cana of Galilee. This is Mary, the Mother of God.

And Jesus … Even before he is born, He already comes to serve and not to be served. It is through service we will recognize him as Lord. Later on he will tell his disciples, "You call me Master and Lord and you are right and yet I am the one who washes your feet. You go and do the same" (John 13:13-15). Today’s Gospel is certainly teaching us how to be sincere and helpful, cordial and kind. How to say each day “Yes” to all and everybody I am encountering in may daily life?

It’s a kind of invitation to follow. Jesus does not only do all this for us while we sit back and wait to be "saved". He invites us to say with him to the Father: "Here I am! I am coming to obey your will."

We are about to celebrate Christmas very soon, this very night. Probably all our other preparations have been made or we are up to our eyes making them. But have we made the most important preparation of all? Yes, to the Father, Yes, to Jesus, Yes to all that we will experience in the coming year, Yes to every call that God makes and will make of us, Yes to everybody whom I will meet in my life?

One day, a poor boy who was selling goods from door to door to pay his way through school, found he had only one thin dime left, and he was hungry. He decided he would ask for a meal at the next house. However, he lost his nerve when a lovely young woman opened the door. Instead of a meal he asked for a drink of water. She thought he looked hungry so brought him a large glass of milk. He drank it slowly, and then asked, How much do I owe you?

You don't owe me anything, she replied. "Mother has taught us never to accept pay for a kindness."

He said..... "Then I thank you from my heart."

As Howard Kelly left that house, he not only felt stronger physically, but his faith in God and man was strong also.

Many years later that same young woman became critically ill. The local doctors were baffled! They finally sent her to the big city, where they called in specialists to study her rare disease. Dr. Howard Kelly was called in for the consultation. When he heard the name of the town she came from, a strange light filled his eyes. Immediately he rose and went down the hall of the hospital to her room.

Dressed in his doctor's gown he went in to see her. He recognized her at once. He went back to the consultation room determined to do his best to save her life. From that day he gave special attention to her case. After a long struggle, the battle was won.

Dr. Kelly requested the business office to pass the final bill to him for approval. He looked at it, then wrote something on the edge and the bill was sent to her room. She feared to open it, for she was sure it would take the rest of her life to pay for it all. Finally she looked, and something caught her attention on the side of the bill. She read these words.....

"Paid in full with one glass of milk. Mother has taught us never to accept pay for a kindness." (Signed) Dr. Howard Kelly.

Saturday, December 12, 2009

13.12.2009 – III Sunday of Advent – Gaudete

The joy of “Gaudete Sunday - Rejoice Sunday” is only comprehensible if we do prepare our paths for God. Today's first and second readings are announcing this joy because of the coming of our King and our Lord. The Gospel is showing us on what our joy should be founded. “Rejoice Sunday” is telling us not about an empty and meaningless or superficial joy which we can find in the world, but rather about the joy which is the effect of the internal conviction of the justice and honesty of my life. I can and I will be truly joyful only if my conscience will not reproach me for anything.

What should we do? What should I do?

What is the real and ultimate foundation or origin of our joy?

This Sunday’s Gospel once more presents John the Baptist. He has a particular place of honor in our tradition. He was the kinsman of the Lord. He was the forerunner, the one who said that the Messiah was coming. He is the one who pointed to Jesus and called him the Lamb of God. He was the one who lived as a radical prophet, wearing animal skins and eating locusts and demanding a radical change in the way people lived. Our generation likes to close its eyes to this aspect of John’s life, but it is this aspect, this demand for continual and radical change, that fascinated the people of the centuries.

In today’s Gospel the people gather around John and ask, “What is it that we should do?” not "What should others do to prepare for the Kingdom?" They do not ask how the government should change to prepare for the Kingdom or how the church should change to prepare for the Kingdom, but, simply and perhaps what is more difficult, "What should I do?"

John told the people to be charitable. They should give the poor their surplus. The tax collectors were told to be honest, not using their positions to enrich themselves. The soldiers were told to stop harassing and intimidating people.

John the Baptist challenged the people to be loving. He also challenges us. He challenges us to adopt a whole new attitude in life, an attitude of sacrificial love. This is the love that others will witness in us as a sign that the Kingdom of God is near. St. Paul put it this way to the Philippians. “Let your gentleness be known to everyone, for the Lord is near.

What is it we should do to prepare for the Lord? The first thing we should do is to look at how we treat other people and then make an effort to be kind, considerate, loving, just and honest.

Bruno Ferrero in his small book “Sunshine” tells a short story about a monk who once, while walking through the forest, observed how the bird of one species was feeding the sick young of a bird of another species. The monk was astonished at first because it was rather strange that one animal would help another in this way.

But finally he said:

“OK. God is giving me a sign. If even animals take care of other animals, so God is showing me that whatever happens, He will certainly always send somebody to help me. It is not necessary that I care so much about my daily needs. What then should I do? I don’t need to take such care of myself, but I should totally and absolutely rely on God’s help.”

Then he stopped doing anything. He just sat in the forest for many days waiting for God's help. Many days later he was so exhausted that he was unable to even lift up his hand. Very weak, he fell asleep and in a dream he saw an angel, who was looking at him very angrily so the monk stood up and started to reprimand the angel saying, “God gave me a sign through that bird, that I have to be totally trustful and rely on God like the young of the strange bird which was fed by the other bird. According to the sign I received from God, you were to help me so why didn’t you help me?” The angel answered. "Yes, the sign was there for you, but it was meant to show you how you have to help others not that you just wait for them to help you.

What should we do? What should I do? What is the deepest source of the true joy?

Wednesday, December 09, 2009

Advent reflections - day 2

“Two men are seated in a plane. The first is given a parachute and told to put it on as it would improve his flight. He’s a little sceptical at first because he can’t see how wearing a parachute in a plane could possibly improve the flight. After a time he decides to experiment and see if the claim is true. As he puts it on he notices the weight of it upon his shoulders and he finds that he has difficulty in sitting upright. However, he consoles himself with the fact that he was told the parachute would improve the flight. So, he decides to give the thing a little time. As he waits he notices that some of the other passengers are laughing at him, because he’s wearing a parachute in a plane. He begins to feel somewhat humiliated. As they begin to point and laugh at him and he can stand it no longer, he slinks in his seat, unstraps the parachute, and throws it to the floor. Disillusionment and bitterness fill his heart, because, as far as he was concerned, he was told an outright lie.

The second man is given a parachute, but listens to what he’s told. He’s told to put it on because at any moment he’d be jumping 25,000 feet out of the plane. He gratefully puts the parachute on; he doesn’t notice the weight of it upon his shoulders, nor that can’t he sit upright. His mind is consumed with the thought of what would happen to him if he jumped without that parachute.

Let’s analyze each passenger’s experience. The first man’s motive for putting the parachute on was solely to improve his flight. The result of his experience was that he was humiliated by the passengers; he was disillusioned and somewhat embittered against those who gave him the parachute. As far as he’s concerned it’ll be a long time before anyone gets one of those things on his back again. The second man put the parachute on solely to escape the jump to come, and because of his knowledge of what would happen to him without it, he has a deep-rooted joy and peace in his heart knowing that he’s saved from sure death. This knowledge gives him the ability to withstand the mockery of the other passengers. His attitude towards those who gave him the parachute is one of heart-felt gratitude.

Now listen to what the some churches say today. It says, “Put on the Lord Jesus Christ. He’ll give you love, joy, peace, fulfillment, and lasting happiness.” In other words, “Jesus will improve your flight.” So the person responds, and in an experimental fashion, becomes a Christian to see if the claims are true. And what does he get? He gets everything Jesus promised believers - temptation, tribulation, and persecution. The other passengers mock him. So what does he do? He takes off the Lord Jesus Christ, he’s disillusioned and somewhat embittered, and quite rightly so. He was promised peace, joy, love, fulfillment, and lasting happiness, and all he got were trials and humiliation. His bitterness is directed toward those who gave him the so-called “good news”. He becomes worse off than if he had never heard about Jesus.

Churches, instead of preaching that Jesus improves the flight, should be warning the passengers they’re going have to jump out of the plane. Peace and joy are legitimate fruits of salvation, but it’s not right to use these fruits as a draw card for salvation.

Now, can you remember why the second passenger had joy and peace in his heart? It was because he knew that parachute was going to save him from sure death

Now with that thought in mind, let’s take a close look at an incident on board the plane. We have a brand new stewardess. She’s carrying a tray of boiling hot coffee. It’s her first day; she wants to leave an impression on the passengers, and she certainly does. Because as she’s walking down the aisle, she trips over someone’s foot and slops that boiling hot coffee all over the lap of our second passenger. Now what’s his reaction as that boiling coffee hits his tender flesh? He screams. He feels the pain. But then does he rip the parachute from his shoulders, throw it to the floor and say, “The stupid parachute!”? No. Why should he? He didn’t put the parachute on for a better flight. He put it on to save him from the jump to come. If anything, the hot coffee incident causes him to cling tighter to the parachute and even look forward to the jump when he can get off the plane.

Now if you and I have put on the Lord Jesus Christ for the right motive, when trials come, when the flight gets bumpy, we won’t get angry at God; we won’t lose our joy and peace. Why should we? We didn’t come to Jesus for a happy lifestyle: we came to flee from the wrath that’s to come. And if anything, trials drive the true believer closer to the Saviour. And sadly we have many people who leave the Church when they lose their joy and peace when the flight gets bumpy. Why? If god loves me just the way I am, why are these bad things happening to me?

Jesus did not come to make your life better in this world. What Christ said is rather “take up your cross and come follow me”. A modern day equivalent would be “go sit in that electric chair, and come follow me”, “stick your head in that noose and come follow me”. Is that an invitation to a better life? Does this fit with what Jesus said?

Monday, December 07, 2009

Parish Advent Mission - Day First


“Late have I loved you, O Beauty ever ancient, ever new, late have I loved you! You were within me, but I was outside, and it was there that I searched for you. In my unloveliness I plunged into the lovely things which you created. You were with me, but I was not with you. Created things kept me from you; yet if they had not been in you they would have not been at all. You called, you shouted, and you broke through my deafness. You flashed, you shone, and you dispelled my blindness. You breathed your fragrance on me; I drew in breath and now I pant for you. I have tasted you, now I hunger and thirst for more. You touched me, and I burned for your peace.”

St. Agustin

What is the incarnation: This word basically means God becoming man.

How do teach something like the incarnation? I mean at first glance it’s easy everyone knows that Christians believe Jesus is God made man whether or not they believe it. Other religions do not believe this. Buddhists think highly of him: “one who may have reached enlightenment.” For Muslims he was a great prophet even if his words had been slightly squed by his followers. The Hindus come closest to the Christian belief but Jesus was no more God then I or you are.

But I am not giving this talk to them, nope I am giving this talk to neo - Christians who know that as enlightened as Christ may have been, it wasn’t what made him rise from the dead. We believe that the apostles did not make up stories about Christ and his claim to divinity, and then die for the lies they made up! And as divinely inspired as I may seem and we both my pretend to be, not a one of us can say to a dead child rise up and see life enter her body by our own power.

Nope it came to me that the only way to talk about the incarnation that would even seem to be relevant would be to tell you how the Lord in his mercy decided to unfold the beauty of his love over the last 2000 years. First we will look at the first 60 years of the fledgling church, then at the newly established imperial church in the 4th and 5th century, and thirdly at the church in the middle ages. There is a lot more to say on the matter but I am giving a retreat not a semester class.

So let’s start with the first chapter of the gospel of John. Although many educated people say that this wasn’t written by the apostle John, in most of our information leads us to believe is was.

The Gospel of John:

the word “LOVE” for this talk is interchangeable with the “WORD”


In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God.


He was in the beginning with God.


All things came to be through him, and without him nothing came to be. What came to be


through him was life, and this life was the light of the human race;


the light shines in the darkness, and the darkness has not overcome it.


A man named John was sent from God.


He came for testimony, to testify to the light, so that all might believe through him.


He was not the light, but came to testify to the light.


The true light, which enlightens everyone, was coming into the world.


He was in the world, and the world came to be through him, but the world did not know him.


He came to what was his own, but his own people did not accept him.


But to those who did accept him he gave power to become children of God, to those who believe in his name,


who were born not by natural generation nor by human choice nor by a man's decision but of God.


And the Word became flesh and made his dwelling among us, and we saw his glory, the glory as of the Father's only Son, full of grace and truth.


John testified to him and cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'The one who is coming after me ranks ahead of me because he existed before me.'"


From his fullness we have all received, grace in place of grace,


because while the law was given through Moses, grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.


No one has ever seen God. The only Son, God, who is at the Father's side, has revealed him.

As you can see the true knowledge of God was known then and there in the Life time of the apostles. Christ was as much God as he was Man in their eyes. But this mystery of God becoming a man was too difficult for people. So many theories about how God became man arose. These are the first heresies... it’s funny but if you look at the heresies of the first few centuries you will see all the heresies of the next 1500 years, there is no such thing as a new heresy! It’s also funny that with his birth into this world it was MARY and the CATHOLIC thought of her, that helped keep us on the right thoughts of Christ

So let’s see what Christ was thought to be and what he IS KNOWN TO BE:

Arianism – the belief that Jesus was god and not man

- But if he was not man how could he have counted among men as there representative and paid the price for sin

Monophysitism – a supper human who evolved into godliness

- If he wasn't God his sacrifice would have been inadequate, regardless of superhuman powers

Nestorianism - Jesus was God and man but separately, like a possession, if you will.

- This gives little freedom to the man Jesus and turns God's redemption of man into a big farce

§ The council of Ephesus (431) condemned the heresy of Nestorius, and defined that Mary was mother in the flesh of God's Word

Jesus was fully God and fully Man (hypostatic union)

- With this we can say that God the second person of the trinity died on the cross... think about it, that’s a drastic claim!

- He was also able to go against God's will because he had a mind of his own! The cool thing about Christ and Mary was that their wills conformed perfectly to the fathers will. The aim of all Christians is to conform our wills to Gods

In the end what we have is Christ, he is fully God with no restrictions he is also fully man with all the pitfalls bodily functions and weaknesses.

- So he couldn't be Buddha because he did not evolve into a God or tap into the grate see of being

- He could not be like Mohammed because he was more than a prophet with great “connections” to God

- He was not Confusious or any great philosopher because he taught the truth from its source that is he.This was his claim (something no sane man had or has ever made)

The Nicene Creed

“We believe in one Lord, Jesus Christ,
the only Son of God,
eternally begotten of the Father,
God from God, Light from Light,
true God from true God,
begotten, not made,
one in Being with the Father.
Through him all things were made.
For us men and for our salvation
he came down from heaven:

(all bow their heads during the next three lines)
by the power of the Holy Spirit
he was born of the Virgin Mary,
and became man.

What does the incarnation mean to Man?

- Franciscan School of thought

- When we think of the incarnation often times we think of Christ coming to earth to die for the sins of mankind and rightly so because that’s what he did but it may not have been the only “why”

- The Franciscans said nature is so beautiful, so awesome that only one thing would make this “art” better and that is for the creator himself to become part of it

- Saint Bonaventure liked to emphasize that everything was created for Christ. In this sense, Creation depended on the Incarnation. And not the other way around. Without the Incarnate Word, indeed, nothing would have been created, and everything was created for him. This is why he is the true King.

oCreation finds its fullness in Crist and so to we!

- And WE DESIRE IT SO he is the fulfillment of all desire

- Sin may have altered the reason for incarnation but not the incarnation

A good way to show this is the perfect work of art became the perfect act of love

– joining the art to become part of it

- Paul’s letters talk about all creation groaning for the fulfillment of the kingdom of Christ (we await the fulfillment of the incarnational promise written into the hearts of man)

- There is the reason why things can always be better sports games could have been played better, scenery could have been better, love could have been better!

- Beer, entertainment, sports and even life experience can only be so good and often we see them as wanting! Is life meant to be so bla? NO!

- The Holy Father said it best when he said “do not be afraid do not give in to mediocrity, put out into the deep and let down your nets for a catch”

- Trust in God and he will fulfill your desire not to be rich or loved by man. But to be filled with his joy and completed as the creation you were always meant to be!

HOW do we do this? .... luckily we were told just today what to do!

How to thank God for the Incarnation:

Christ is the love of God made FLESH. He is also the Fulfillment of all creation the perfection of all creation. He is the smile on the Mona Lisa, the ART of creation.

How can we but love, in the midst of such Love!

I repeat the words of John the Baptist "Prepare the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low, and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth; and all flesh shall see the salvation of God."

All this should say to us is don’t get in the way of the love of God! Fill in the valleys of our discontented mediocrity of the sin we have grown too accustomed to. Push down the mountains made from the mole hills of our pride, do what is right in the eyes of God so that his way to your heart is straight and smooth. See the salvation of our God, the fulfillment of all your inner most desires... you were made for him! Don’t let sin get in the way, hell what else confession is for!

“You have made us for Yourself, Oh Lord, and our hearts are restless until they rest in Thee.”

St. Agustin

John-Paul Markides

Thursday, December 03, 2009


"Eucharist is not about our ideas, or about us, in that sense. It is about meaning, the meaning given to it by a young Jew named Jesus and his offering of himself in love to the Father.

"We are not called to create the meaning for ourselves all over again; we are called to enter into it."

We do not invent the meaning of the liturgy, we receive it, and it is protected by the rubrics that give both direction as to how the liturgy is to be celebrated and the parameters within which it is acceptable to celebrate.

Liturgical prayer and personal prayer are two are distinct forms and while personal prayer nurtures and nourishes liturgical prayer, they are not interchangeable.

Liturgical prayer is the prayer of the Body of Christ, usually addressed to the Father, and is about what God has done for us in Christ. Devotional prayer is individual, or in groups, and can be addressed to the Father, the Son, the Holy Spirit, Mary or one of the saints.

Liturgical prayer has a shape that is significant and is repetitive and familiar. Changing liturgy is similar to changing the rules each time the team comes out to play the game. You would no longer be able to function as a team if that happened.

The posture of the assembly, in standing or kneeling at the Consecration and following Communion, is a sign of the unity of the assembly.

While both are liturgically correct, the assembly should be unified in its action since this is not a time for personal, private prayer, she said.

Fr. Bill Burke

Director of the National Liturgy Office of the Canadian Council of Catholic Bishops

Western Catholic Reporter